James -Sales Engineer

Hey Adam, We are about to pitch our 5G solutions to clients. Can you help in diving into 5G technologies like 5G NR in detail?

Adam -Senior Product Manager

5G New Radio, is a new and improved communication delivering 20 Gbps peak data rates, better traffic capacity and network efficiency higher than 4G networks.

James -Sales Engineer

How does 5G NR translate real benefits into IoT applications with greater traffic capacity and efficiency?

Adam -Senior Product Manager

A major breakthrough is the introduction of new Massive MIMO antennas transmitting signals in beam form instead of stretching over a wide area as the antennas for 4G generally do.

James -Sales Engineer

That's compelling. But does that also imply we are looking at a major hardware overhaul for our clients with the growing advancements in connectivity domain?

Adam -Senior Product Manager

4G towers can be used for 5G by integrating 5G radio units. But there will be the need for 5G only devices and structures for this enhanced technology. To know more about the capabilities and opportunities 5G NR opens up, refer to the blog below.

Introduction


The telecommunications landscape has undergone a transformative change with the advent of the 5th-generation mobile network, 5G. This progression, building on the foundations of 4G, 3G, and 2G networks, ushers in a new era of connectivity. Central to this evolution is 5G NR (New Radio), the next-generation wireless access technology first outlined in 3GPP Release 15 and continually refined in later releases. 5G NR significantly enhances our capability to interconnect everything from simple IoT devices to complex industrial IoT systems, creating a smarter, more connected environment.

Moreover, the capabilities of 5G have been further augmented by the introduction of 5G NR-Light, also known as 5G Reduced Capability or 5G-RedCap. This iteration streamlines the technology for more specific applications, improving efficiency without compromising performance.

As we explore the extensive role of 5G NR in revolutionizing connectivity, it becomes evident that 5G New Radio is not merely an upgrade but a substantial leap forward in the telecommunications domain. The full form of 5G NR stands as a testament to its pivotal role in shaping the future of global communications.

What is 5G NR?

5G NR, or 5G New Radio, is the next-generation standard for wireless communications set for mobile telecommunication. The "NR" in 5G NR stands for 5G New Radio, highlighting the new air interface used for transmitting and receiving 5G signals. This technology offers lower latency, higher system capacity, and massive device connectivity, all while consuming less energy.

iSIM

5G NR or 5G New Radio

5G NR is designed to support a wide range of frequency bands, including sub-6 GHz and millimeter-wave frequencies, enhancing spectrum efficiency and flexibility. The 5G NR full form, "5G New Radio," is integral to the 5G ecosystem, enabling advanced applications like ultra-reliable low-latency communications (URLLC) and massive machine-type communications (mMTC), essential for IoT and smart city developments.

Frequency Ranges of 5G NR

iSIM Architecture

Frequencies used in 5G NR

5G NR (New Radio) leverages specific electromagnetic frequencies to revolutionize wireless communication. This next-generation standard is divided into three key bandwidth sections:

These bandwidths are categorized into two main frequency ranges in the 5G NR framework:

By embracing these comprehensive frequency ranges, 5G New Radio significantly mitigates previous network limitations. The expansion into new frequency bands allows 5G NR to drastically reduce network congestion and enhance overall data throughput, solidifying its role as a transformative force in telecommunications.

Working of 5G NR

Technologies used in 5G NR

Technologies used in 5G NR

5G NR (New Radio) employs a suite of advanced technologies to enhance the efficiency and capabilities of the network. These include Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM), Beamforming, Massive MIMO, Small Cells, and Dynamic TDD, each playing a crucial role in optimizing the performance of 5G NR networks.

OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing)

OFDM is a method used in 5G NR that extends the basic frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) principle. It involves the use of cyclic prefix OFDM and DFT-Spread OFDM to distribute the overall data stream across multiple subchannels. This separation reduces interference, as the subcarrier frequencies are broadly spaced at 15kHz, 30kHz, 60kHz, and 120kHz intervals, enhancing the signal clarity and network efficiency.

Beamforming

Beamforming in 5G NR is more than just a signal processing technique; it's a strategic deployment that directs radio waves to a specific target location rather than dispersing them broadly. This focus not only strengthens the signal at the receiver but also improves data speed and energy efficiency. In 5G NR, optimizing antenna beam patterns is crucial for reducing interference and boosting the network's reliability and performance. This deep dive into beamforming reveals its pivotal role in achieving precise and efficient transmission, crucial for supporting dense urban deployments and high-demand applications.

Massive MIMO

Massive MIMO (Multiple-Input Multiple-Output) technology significantly enhances 5G NR by increasing spectral efficiency. It involves scaling the number of antennas at base stations, known as gNB antennas, which drastically expands network coverage, capacity, and throughput. Unlike previous generations, Massive MIMO in 5G NR uses these multi-antenna arrays to serve multiple users simultaneously within the same frequency spectrum, thereby multiplying the capacity of the network without additional spectrum.

Small Cells

Small Cells are integral to 5G NR for bolstering network capacity, particularly in areas with high user density. These low-power base stations utilize mmWave frequencies and are often enhanced with beamforming techniques to intensify signal strength and reach. Small cells complement macro networks by filling in coverage gaps and boosting in-building penetration, making them essential for a seamless 5G NR experience across varied environments.

Dynamic TDD

Dynamic Time Division Duplexing (TDD) is critical in 5G NR for its flexibility in managing uplink and downlink communications. By using the same frequency for both directions but allocating separate time slots for uplink and downlink, 5G NR reduces latency and adapts dynamically to varying traffic demands, which is vital for real-time applications.

5G NR Applications

iSIM Architecture

Applications of 5G NR

5G NR (New Radio) has revolutionized various sectors by enabling robust, high-speed, and reliable communication solutions that are reshaping how industries operate. Here’s a comprehensive look at the diverse applications of 5G NR across different industries:

Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB)

5G NR dramatically improves mobile broadband experiences, supporting high-demand applications such as high-definition video streaming, immersive gaming, and live broadcasts. This enhancement is particularly transformative in the media and entertainment sector, where users enjoy seamless streaming with minimal buffering and unprecedented download speeds, significantly enriching the user experience.

Ultra-reliable and Low-latency Communications (URLLC)

In critical scenarios that demand high reliability and ultra-low latency, 5G NR excels. Industries such as automotive, healthcare, and manufacturing leverage 5G NR for essential applications including the command and control functions of V2X (Vehicle-to-Everything) in autonomous vehicles, and remote control operations in surgeries and factory settings. This facet of 5G New Radio enables real-time data transmission, essential for tasks that require immediate feedback and precision.

Massive Machine-type Communications (mMTC)

5G NR is pivotal in enabling mMTC, connecting millions of IoT devices across various scales and industries. From smart city applications that manage everything from traffic systems to energy grids, to agricultural systems that monitor soil and crop conditions, 5G NR facilitates massive connectivity with minimal energy use, enhancing the efficiency and sustainability of large-scale IoT deployments.

Specific Industry Applications

Closing Notes

5G New Radio represents a significant leap forward in wireless technology, offering unprecedented speed, reliability, and efficiency. As we continue to explore and expand the capabilities of this wireless technology through the latest 3GPP 5G NR Releases, the innovation potential is boundless. It also acts as the foundation of the 5G reduced capability - taking wireless communication to an advanced level. 5G New Radio standard is set to become the backbone of a more connected, faster, and smarter world.

To learn more, visit us at
https://www.cavliwireless.com/iot-modules/cellular-modules.html



Amusing Tech Chronicles

Facts and Anecdotes Related to this Edition of Wireless By Design


Amusing Tech Chronicles

The Digital Ninja

With its ability to slice through network congestion and dodge interference, the 5G NR network is like a digital ninja, delivering your data with precision and agility.


The Digital Ninja

The Invisible Juggler

5G NR network juggles frequencies like an invisible circus performer, handling a range of bands from low (great for coverage) to high (amazing for speed), all without dropping a single data ball

beidou

The Ant Army

5G NR antennas operate like a colony of ants. Each antenna carries data to and fro, coordinating flawlessly to build a seamless network of communication at extraordinary speeds.


Go Beyond and Explore


5G NR is a substantial evolution from 4G LTE, the previous generation of wireless technology. While LTE supports up to 1000 devices per cell, 5G supports up to 10,000 devices per cell. 5G NR is engineered to support mission-critical communications and facilitate the massive Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem, marking a leap forward in both swift performance and efficiency.

Standalone Mode: This mode relies solely on a 5G packet core for both transferring information and signaling.
Non-Standalone Mode (NSA): It is an attractive option for areas already equipped with 4G. NSA mode utilizes the existing 4G network control plane speeding up implementation and cutting down on hardware costs.
Dynamic Spectrum Sharing (DSS): DSS allows for the sharing of spectrum between 4G LTE and 5G NR based on real-time demand. Like NSA, DSS enables quicker rollouts and reduced hardware expenses.

5G can support up to 10,000 devices per cell with

  • 3x spectrum efficiency

  • 10x experience throughput

  • 100x traffic capacity

  • 100x network efficiency

5G NR is designed to enable a massive scale of IoT deployments. Its high capacity, speed, and low latency facilitate more complex and reliable IoT applications, making it possible to connect and manage large numbers of devices efficiently required for massive IoT and IIoT.


References

https://www.qualcomm.com/content/dam/qcomm-martech/dm-assets/documents/powerpoint_presentation_-_designing_5g_nr_september_2018_web.pdf

https://www.3g4g.co.uk/5G/5Gtech_0004_Beginners_5GforAbsoluteBeginnersCombined.pdf


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